Dr. Deepti
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11 Proven Benefits of Aloe Vera – with Mechanisms and Side Effects

11 Proven Benefits of Aloe Vera – with Mechanisms and Side Effects

Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) is a shrubby green plant. It grows in the dry regions of America, Africa, Asia, and Europe. Many people have been using aloe for its beauty, health, and medicinal effects for centuries.

Forms of Aloe Vera

  • Gel: You can apply aloe vera gel onto the skin to help reduce inflammation, clear skin, and heal wounds [R].
  • Juice and Supplements (capsules): You can take aloe vera orally via supplements or juice to stop constipation, boost the immune system, or reduce diabetes symptoms [R].


Aloe vera leaves have three layers [RRR]:

  • Rind (outer layer) – It protects the plant, transports substances (water and starch), and produces proteins and carbs.
  • Latex (middle) – It contains glycosides (sugars bound to another compound) and anthraquinones (phenolic compounds). Barbaloin/aloin, isobarbaloin, and emodin are the main active compounds.
  • Gel (inside) – It contains water, sugar, amino acids, fat, and vitamins. Glucomannan, salicylic acid, and phytosterols are the main active compounds.


The latex and gel contain most of aloe vera’s active compounds. Aloe vera’s vitamins and anthraquinones have antioxidant properties. Its enzymes, glycoproteins, fatty acids, and hormone are anti-inflammatory [R].

Health Benefits of Aloe Vera

1) Aloe Vera Is Anti-Inflammatory

In a study (DB-RCT) of 40 volunteers, topical aloe vera gel application on their backs reduced UV-ray induced inflammation. Aloe vera gel was better at reducing inflammation and redness than hydrocortisone cream [R].

In human colon cells, aloe vera gel dose-dependently inhibited inflammation. Aloe vera has potential in treating inflammatory bowel disease [R].

Aloe vera gel also suppressed inflammatory markers in human immune cells [R].

In mice, topical aloe vera application on their ears also reduced inflammation (that was caused by an irritant) [R].

Aloe vera’s anti-inflammatory effects come from its ability to reduce PGE2 production and stop the cyclooxygenase pathway [R].

Aloe vera also suppresses other inflammatory markers like TNF-a and IL-1B[R].

It contains C-glucosyl chrome, an anti-inflammatory compound [R].

2) Aloe Vera Is Antimicrobial

In an RCT of 390 people, aloe vera mouthwash was as effective as antibacterial chemicals in removing plaque. After thirty days, the aloe vera group also had healthier gums and less plaque compared to the controls [R].

Herpes simplex is a virus that can cause cold sores and other diseases in the mouth. Aloe vera gel can kill herpes simplex virus without being toxic to other cells [R].

Aloin (extracted from aloe vera) inactivated several viruses (influenza, herpes simplex, and varicella zoster) [R].

Water and alcohol aloe vera extracts can inhibit gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, although the alcoholic extract is more efficient. The extracts inhibited Enterococcus bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae [R].

Purified aloe vera protein also inhibited fungal growth (Candida paraprilosis, C. krusei, and C. albicans) [R].

Aloe vera contains antimicrobial compounds (phenols, sulfur, salicylic acid, lupeol, urea nitrogen, and cinnamonic acid), which inhibit viruses, bacteria, and fungi [R].

Aloe vera breaks bacterial cells to stop their growth [R].

3) Aloe Vera Boosts the Immune System

Aloe vera contains many antioxidants – Vitamin C and E, flavonoids, tannins, and carotenoids. By stopping oxidative damage, the antioxidants can protect the immune system [R].

In guinea pigs, alprogen (an aloe vera constituent), inhibited mast cell formation. Mast cells are white blood cells that may cause inflammation and hypersensitivity or allergic reactions. When alprogen inhibited mast cell formation, it prevented histamine and leukotriene release and prevented allergic reactions [R].

Aloe vera extract also caused mice’s white blood cells to release interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor, which stimulates the immune system [R].

Aloeride, a sugar from aloe vera juice, activates white blood cells (macrophages), which also stimulates immune system function [R].

4) Aloe Vera Is Anti-Cancer

Various aloe vera polyphenols stopped cancer growth in human cells. Both aloe-emodin and emodin inhibited skin cancer cell growth. Also, combining aloe-emodin with chemotherapy drugs (5-fluorouracil, abiplastin, and adriablastin) enhanced their effects [R].

Polysaccharides from aloe gel extract prevent carcinogens from forming [RR].

Various aloe vera constituents (emodin, aloin, and anthracene) inactivate cancer molecular pathways [R].

5) Aloe Vera Improves Diabetes Symptoms


In a study (DB-RCT) of 30 type 2 diabetic patients (with high cholesterol), aloe gel capsule supplementation helped control diabetes. Taking 300 mg of aloe gel capsules twice daily for two months lowered blood sugar, total cholesterol, and LDL (bad cholesterol) levels. It also lowered HBA1c, a long-term measure of blood sugar [R].

A review showed that diabetic patients had the most improvement in blood sugar after taking aloe compared to healthy patients [R].

In human cells, an aloe vera compound (aloe-emodin glycosides) increased glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. This reduces glucose levels and helps stop insulin resistance [R].

6) Aloe Vera Heals Wounds

In a study (RCT) of 30 burn patients, aloe vera gel helped treat burn woundsbetter than Nitrofurazone, an antibacterial ointment used to treat wounds. The aloe gel helped regrow new skin faster than the antibiotic ointment in patients with second-degree burns [R].

In a study of 18 facial scarring patients, topical aloe vera gel helped heal skin more quickly. The treatment also reduced pain from their wounds better than antibacterial ointment [R].

However, there are conflicting results from other studies. In women with surgical scars, applying aloe vera gel on their skin significantly delayed wound healing compared to a standard ointment [R].

Aloe vera’s constituents, glucomannan (sugar) and gibberellin (a growth hormone), interact with growth factors, which stimulates skin cell activity and growth. This is how topical and oral aloe vera stimulates collagen formation and heal wounds [R].

Additionally, aloe vera improved collagen composition, which helps heal wounds faster [R].

7) Aloe Vera Improves Skin Health

In a study of 30 participants with dry hands, aloe vera gel (by wearing a glove for 8 hours a day) improved dry skin after about 4 days. There was a significant improvement after 10 days in skin strength, wrinkling, and reddening [R].

In a study (DB-RCT) of 41 psoriasis patients, aloe vera gel decreased redness, peeling, and pain by 72.5%. However, the placebo was more effective at reducing psoriasis symptoms (82.5%) [R].

Aloe vera gel application on rat skin increased the formation of metallothionein, an antioxidant protein. The protein stops UV ray-caused oxidative damage, prevents antioxidant suppression, and reduced immunosuppressive cytokine (IL-10) release [R].

Sugars from aloe vera helps moisturize the skin by stimulating skin cells. The increase in collagen and elastin also soften the skin, makes it more elastic, and reduces wrinkles [RR].

8) Aloe Vera Acts as a Laxative

Aloe vera helps relieve constipation. In a study (DB-RCT) of 35 chronic constipation patients, aloe vera and fiber pills helped reduce constipationmore than the control pills. The patients experienced more frequent bowel movements, softer stools, and took laxatives less often [R].

However, in rats, aloe-emodin extracted from aloe vera had a strong laxative effect and even induced diarrhea [R].

Phenolic compounds from aloe vera latex are responsible for its laxative effects. They stimulate the intestine, increase intestinal water, and stimulates contractions (peristalsis) [R].

9) Aloe Vera Gel Treats Canker Sores

In a study (DB-RCT) of 40 patients with canker sores (minor aphthous lesions), aloe vera gel decreased healing time. It reduced pain and wound size [R].

In another study (DB-RCT) of 90 patients, aloe vera gel fully healed 76% of the patients’ canker sores. It was especially efficient at decreasing ulcer size, redness, and oozing [R].

10) Aloe Vera Eases Heartburn

In a pilot study (RCT) of 79 acid reflux patients, aloe vera was effective in relieving heartburn and acid reflux symptoms [R].

Compared to the group who received Omeprazole (a commonly prescribed heartburn medicine), the aloe vera group also had reduced heartburn, gas, vomiting, nausea, gas, and other symptoms. The aloe vera was well tolerated and had few adverse effects [R].

11) Aloe Vera Protects Hair


UV radiation can cause hair to become dull, turn rough, and break easily. Aloe juice treatment on hair samples showed protective effects against UV ray damage [R].

Although aloe vera juice can protect all types of hair, it is more effective at keeping colored hair, then grey and black hair, shiny and smooth [R].


Because there are not many human trials available, caution should be taken while using aloe vera for its health benefits.

Side Effects of Aloe Vera

Common Side Effects [R]:

  • Skin rashes
  • Burning and stinging
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach cramps
  • Constipation

In various case studies, high oral doses of aloe vera caused kidney failure, hepatitis, liver dysfunction, and even hyperthyroidism [R].

Prolonged oral supplementation of aloe vera can cause potassium deficiency. This can eventually lead to heart problems [R].

High doses of aloe vera decreased brain activity in mice. After 90 days, it also damaged sperm, decreased red blood cell count, and increased death[R].

Two years of aloe vera leaf extract administration in drinking water caused the rats to develop tumors in their intestines. They had an increased risk for colon cancer [R].


People who are allergic to Liliaceae plants (onions, garlic, tulips, etc.) should avoid using aloe vera [R].

Pregnant women are also advised to not take aloe vera. It can have toxic effects on their embryo and fetus. It may also cause contractions [RR].

People with heart or kidney problems should be careful taking aloe vera as it can create an imbalance in the body’s electrolytes and cause potassium deficiency [R].


Topically, aloe vera can be applied liberally on the skin to prevent dryness, soften skin, and reduce wrinkles [R].

When using to treat constipation, 0.04–0.17 gram of dried aloe vera juice is recommended. Additionally, a combination of 150 mg dried juice, psyllium (50 mg), and celandine (300 mg) is a safe alternative [R].

People normally drink 5–15 mL of aloe vera juice twice daily to help treat diabetes [R].

Aloe vera should not be injected into the body [R].

Drug Interactions

Aloe vera may have antiplatelet activity, meaning that it can cause blood thinning. In one case study, a woman taking aloe vera supplements experienced severe bleeding after oral surgery. Aloe vera interacted with sevoflurane to increase bleeding. However, no other studies have shown these effects [R].

Gene Interactions

  • Aloe vera gel increased expression (production) of GLUT-4, a protein needed to get glucose into cells (in mice) [RR].
  • Processed aloe vera gel also reduces production of SREBP-1aFASandGPAT; genes known to have an effect on fat synthesis (in mice) [R].
  • Sugars from aloe vera gel induce MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene production in rats. This helps with wound repair and collagen formation [R].
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Low Testosterone Levels Are Associated With Incident Falls in Older Men

Low Testosterone Levels Are Associated With Incident Falls in Older Men

A person’s bone strength and the risk of falls determine fracture risk. Over one-third of community-dwelling adults who are at least 75 years of age will fall each year, making it a major public health concern.

As men age, decreasing serum levels of testosterone and bioavailable testosterone have been reported, which are associated with reduced muscle strength, lean mass loss, and impaired mobility, resulting in increased fall risk.

To date, available data related to testosterone therapy and incident fall risk are inconsistent.

Previous studies have used radio-immunoassay methods to measure serum sex steroid levels; however, the limited specificity and accuracy of these methods provide concerns, especially at low concentrations.

This article published in the June 2017 issue of the Journal of Bone and Mineral Researchwas written by Liesbeth Vandenput, PhD, from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, and colleagues, and evaluates the relationship between serum sex steroid levels and incident falls in a large population of older men.

“No data are available documenting the association between serum sex steroid levels measured by mass spectrometry, considered the gold standard, and the risk of incident falls in men,” the authors wrote in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.

Study design and participant population

This multicenter Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study included older men in the United States, Sweden, and Hong Kong. The US sample included 5994 community-dwelling men of at least 65 years old who could walk without assistance, including 70.3% non-Hispanic whites, 11.5% African Americans, 8.8% Asians, and 9.4% other races and ethnicities. The Swedish sample included 3014 men aged 69 to 81 years who could walk without assistance. The Hong Kong sample included 2000 Chinese men aged 65 years or older who could walk without assistance.

Participants who had missing information related to body mass index, prevalent falls, or incident falls; who had surgical or chemical castration; or who had received androgen or antiandrogen treatment were excluded from the study. The total sample eligible for analyses included 1919 men in the US, 2495 men in Sweden, and 1469 men in Hong Kong.

A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information related to age, race/ethnicity, prevalent diseases, and use of central nervous system medication. Factors such as alcohol consumption, dizziness, use of walking aids, falls, and mobility limitation were provided by participant self-report.

To estimate physical performance, measurements of grip strength, a timed chair stands test, a 20-cm narrow walking test, and a 6-m walking test were used. Grip strength was measured using a Jamar hand dynamometer, with the maximum value from two trials of both hands analyzed. In the timed chair stands test, research staff recorded the time to complete 5 chair stands without using arms to rise. As a measure of dynamic balance, participants walked a 6-m course within a 20-cm narrow path.

Tri-annual mailed questionnaires (Sweden and US) or telephone calls (Hong Kong) were used to collect information related to incident falls. Participants were followed until the end of the study, death, emigration, or discontinuation from the study.

Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to assess sex hormone levels, using a valid testosterone measurement as a reference, of 2022 men in the US, 2639 men in Sweden, and 1489 men in Hong Kong.

In the combined cohort, the average age was 74 years. A total of 50.7% of the men reported 1 or more falls during an average follow-up of 5.7 years. The incident fall rate was lowest in Hong Kong and highest in the US.

Sex steroids as risk factors for incident falls

Participants with prevalent falls at baseline had increased odds of incident falls in each sample and in the overall study population (OR = 2.68, 95% CI 2.57-2.80). In models adjusted for age, race, site, study cohort, and prevalent falls, serum levels of total and bioavailable testosterone were associated with an increased likelihood of incident falls. Serum levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin were not associated with incident falls.

A significant non-linear relationship between serum total or bioavailable testosterone and fall risk was found using quadratic models, with cubic spline analyses indicating that men with total or bioavailable testosterone levels in the lowest quartile had the most prominent increased risk of falls. In participants with hypogonadism, both low total and bioavailable testosterone were associated with increased falls.

“To investigate whether the associations between serum total testosterone and bioavailable testosterone and incident falls were mediated by lean mass or physical performance, we added physical performance variables (grip strength, timed chair stand, walking speed, and narrow walk) and total body lean mass to the basic models,” noted Vandenput and colleagues in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.

Total and bioavailable testosterone and fall risk remained significantly inversely associated after adjustment for each physical performance variable individually. Furthermore, only a slight attenuation was noted after adjusting for all variables and lean mass simultaneously. Adjustment for fall-related comorbidities such as alcohol use, medications, and prevalent diseases did not significantly alter the associations between serum total or bioavailable testosterone and falls. Importantly, the multivariate models did not reveal significant associations of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, or sex hormone-binding globulin with falls.


In this study, Vandenput and colleagues describe an increased fall risk in participants with low total or bioavailable serum testosterone levels. “The association between both total testosterone or bioavailable testosterone and falls was at least partly independent of physical performance and lean mass, and remained relatively unchanged over time,” Vandenput and colleagues wrote in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.

Study limitations include the fact that fall events were based on self-report, and results were based on single serum sex steroid measurements. Furthermore, the bioavailable sex steroid levels were calculated and not measured directly, which is the preferred method.

“Both falls and bone strength parameters are independent predictors of fracture risk in older men,” noted the authors in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. “With the present data, we propose that low serum testosterone influences fracture risk via an increased risk of falls, whereas low estradiol might increase fracture risk mainly through reduced bone strength,” the authors concluded.

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Midlife Inflammation Tied to Later Brain Volume Loss

Midlife Inflammation Tied to Later Brain Volume Loss

Elevated levels of inflammation biomarkers in midlife may be associated with loss of brain volume later in life, researchers found.

In an analysis of data from the prospective ARIC study, each standard deviation increase in a composite score of inflammation was tied to smaller hippocampal and occipital lobe volume about a quarter century later, Keenan Walker, PhD, of Johns Hopkins University, and colleagues reported online in Neurology.

Greater inflammation in midlife was also tied to a smaller Alzheimer’s disease signature region volume, and a larger ventricular volume down the road, the researchers said.

“These results suggest that inflammation in midlife may be an early contributor to the brain changes that are associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia,” Walker said in a statement. “Because the processes that lead to brain cell loss begin decades before people start showing any symptoms, it is vital that we figure out how these processes that happen in middle age affect people many years later.”

Walker and colleagues assessed data on 1,633 people (average age 53, 60% female, 27% African American) enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, creating composite scores for each participant based on levels of five blood-based markers of inflammation: fibrinogen, albumin, white blood cell count, von Willebrand factor, and Factor VIII.

A higher inflammation composite score at baseline was associated with older age, female sex, African-American race, and increased levels of a number of cardiovascular risk factors.

Patients, who enrolled in their 40s and 50s, were followed for an average of 24 years. At that time, the researchers found that each standard deviation increase in inflammation composite score at baseline was associated with a:

  • 532 mm3 smaller AD signature region volume (P=0.008)
  • 519 mm3 smaller occipital lobe volume (P=0.009)
  • 110 mm3 smaller hippocampal volume (P=0.013)
  • 1,788 mm3 larger ventricular volume (P=0.013)

They noted that each standard deviation increase in inflammation composite score on occipital lobe, ventricular, and hippocampal volume was “similar to the effect associated with possession of a single APOE e4 allele in our multivariable regression analyses.”

No link was found between midlife inflammation and total brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, or parietal lobe volume, they noted.

Late-life episodic memory was reduced among those with higher levels of the inflammation composite score; each standard deviation increase was associated with a -0.08 decrease in performance on the delayed word recall (DWR) test after adjustment (P=0.046), and a higher number of elevated inflammatory markers at baseline was tied to reduced DWR performance (P=0.009).

Walker told MedPage Today that primary analyses excluded patients who met criteria for various forms of dementia, but secondary analyses that involved patients with dementia at the time of MRI and memory assessments didn’t change the findings.

As suggested by prior cross-sectional studies in older non-demented adults, the association between midlife inflammation and late-life brain volume was modified by age and marginally by race, whereby younger participants and white participants with higher levels of systemic inflammation during midlife were more likely to show reduced brain volumes subsequently. However, this study did not support the previously reported interaction with sex, the authors noted.

While it is too early to recommend any dramatic changes in practice, Walker said the team’s findings “do suggest that reducing the burden of diseases known to cause chronic inflammation should be a priority for dementia prevention throughout adulthood. It is my hope that these findings will direct future research efforts for dementia prevention and treatment.”

Limitations included the use of some inflammatory markers that may be involved in other closely related physiologic processes such as hemostasis, which could impact brain volume, and by the fact that it relied on single measurements of inflammation, which may not paint a complete picture of inflammatory profile.

Elisabeth Lucassen, MD, of Penn State University, who wasn’t involved in the study, said although the results aren’t surprising, the study “allows a previously known association of variables to be viewed as a cause/effect that is more concrete.”

She said the researchers were thorough in looking at covariates, though “I would have been interested to know if diet may have played a role … I also think that they could have been more thorough in their cognitive testing, as the DWR only tests one aspect of dementia (episodic memory), and I do not think one can make a diagnosis of dementia based on this one test alone. An MMSE or MoCA at least would have tested more cognitive domains and are tests that are used clinically, giving clinicians a better perspective of what this data really mean.”

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Signs You May Have Leaky Gut

Signs You May Have Leaky Gut

Here are a few of the common signs and symptoms:

  • bloating
  • gas
  • cramps
  • food sensitivity
  • autoimmune disease
  • thyroid problems
  • skin conditions
  • IBD
  • IBS
  • pain


What is ‘Leaky gut’?

Intestinal permeability. Simply put content from your gut can pass/leak through the intestinal barrier. Gut bacteria and their by products can escape the gut thus causing inflammation of the cells and cause tissue damage.

“Leaky gut” can be caused by an unlimited number of things from alcohol to chemotherapy. There is nothing pleasant about this disease including the name. But the good news is there are answers, and they lie in the foods we eat.

The main function of the gut is to absorb nutrients from food. Another very important function of the gut is to keep harmful bacteria, toxins, and food antigens from invading the rest of the cells in the body.


What can you do about it?

Lifestyle modifications are you main defense.

Avoiding the triggers such as:

  • Diets low in fiber, high in fats and sugars, processed foods
  • Alcohol
  • Stress
  • Intense physical activity
  • Gluten

Include healthy unsaturated fat, Omega-3, to your diet. This is vitally important to maintain a healthy balance between Omega-3 vs Omega-6 fatty acids. Our typical western diet has an excess amount of Omega-6 and very little Omega-3.  

It is not enough just to take Omega-3 supplements. In order to provide the necessary healthy effect you must take the correct amount for your body and current state of health as well as take one that is of high quality free of toxins.

Dr. Deepti discovered the value of Omega-3 fish oil and its exceptional value to our health issues and maintaining our health once corrected that she has formulated her own brand that is of the highest quality and free of the toxins that are present in most over the counter fish oil products.

Through intense research and personal experience Dr. Deepti has determined the foods that are harmful and promote leaky gut as well as the foods that are highly beneficial and promote healthy productive cell activity.

If you are experiencing any symptoms of leaky gut make an appointment with us. Your discomfort could be gone with a few minor adjustments.

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Thinking About Your Weight?

Thinking About Your Weight?

It’s coming up on that time of year when we start thinking about losing unwanted weight, starting an exercise program, eating healthier, etc. etc. You know the drill. At Quality Health Care we know it all too well.

Most of our staff has been in this position and made the decision to follow Dr. Deepti’s Lifestyle program. It is not just about weight loss it is about your overall health. Your health now and as you age. Dr. Deepti has spent years researching the causes of disease and it all comes down to the food that we eat. Which means you have choices, you are in charge of what you choose to eat. And we will show you how to make great choices that will that improve your well-being.

If you knew that diabetes, heart disease, or dementia was in your future would you do something to prevent that from happening? This is not one of those scare tactic letters, this is to get your attention and have you make a good decision concerning your health. Major diseases are preventable. It is not a hard arduous task. Dr. Deepti has done the hard work, she knows the answers. You simply need to decide how your health future is going to unfold.

If you were on the program and have fallen off the track we are here to assist you in getting right back to where you should be. If you haven’t made the commitment to yourself to improve your health we are here for you. We have an excellent team of dedicated medical professionals that are here for you to answer questions, assist you when you are unsure, to share their stories so that you can see the results. We walk the way we talk.

Here is what is hard, listening to the results of medical testing and finding out that you have a disease that could have been prevented. If you are now in that position we are who you need to call. We can reverse most major diseases, we do it every day.

Schedule an appointment, take charge of your health.

At Quality Health Care & Wellness Institute, We Know What We Are Doing.

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Omega-3 Intake Reduces Cardiac Risks

Omega-3 Intake Reduces Cardiac Risks

Results from a new study published in the Journal of Clinical Lipidology showed that in 14 randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) of 71,899 people, consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3s reduced the risk of cardiac death by a statistically-significant average of 8 percent. Cardiac death accounts for about two-thirds (about 405,000) of all cardiovascular disease deaths in the United States, and 42 percent (7.4 million) globally, each year. This is the first published meta-analysis to include cardiac death (also known as “coronary mortality”) as a primary endpoint, and the most comprehensive review of the evidence to date.

The meta-analysis showed even greater—17 percent—risk reduction in groups who had elevated triglycerides or LDL cholesterol. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that EPA and DHA omega-3s may be most useful for reducing cardiac death in higher risk individuals (see table), which is important since The National Center for Health Statistics estimates that 25 percent of adults in the US have triglyceride levels ≥150 mg/dL and 27 percent have LDL cholesterol levels ≥130 mg/dL (4). The greatest reduction in cardiac death rates—an almost 30% risk reduction—was observed in trials that utilized dosages of more than 1 gram of EPA and DHA per day.

The RCTs reviewed were longer than six months in length, and investigated cardiac death as the primary outcome, comparing frequencies of cardiac death events between the omega-3 and control groups. The researchers reviewed studies published through December 2016 that included both dietary supplement and pharmaceutical omega-3 interventions. In the omega-3 groups, 1,613 cardiac deaths were recorded (4.48 percent of subjects) compared to 1,746 cardiac deaths in the control groups (4.87 percent of subjects). This study did not review the effects of EPA and DHA consumption from fish on cardiac death risk because no randomized, controlled trials exist, but observational studies on EPA and DHA from fish also support a benefit in risk reduction.

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